Charles Calvert, 5th Lord Baltimore, was born on September 29, 1699, in England. He was the eldest son of Benedict Leonard Calvert and Lady Charlotte Lee. Charles Calvert and Mary Janssen (?—1748) married in 1730. They had five children. He was the proprietor of Maryland from 1715 to 1751. A modern historian credits him as being a careful and fairly successful administrator.
As proprietor, Calvert's private income included duties enacted by the provincial legislature for his benefit. He owned all unpatented land in Maryland. He personally owned twenty-one homes in various locations in the colony, plus lands around each manor to prevent encroachment by others. Manor and lands totaled at least 103,000 acres. By 1751 manor lands amounted to about 111,500 acres.
Charles Calvert died on April 24, 1751.